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Laser Crystal - Gain Medium For Solid State Laser

Laser crystals can convert the energy supplied from the outside into highly parallel and monochromic laser crystals with spatial and temporal coherence through optical resonators. It is the working substance of a crystal laser. The laser crystal consists of two parts: the luminescence center and the matrix crystal. The luminescence center of most laser crystals is composed of activated ions which replace the cations in matrix crystals to form doped laser crystals. When activated ions become part of the matrix crystal components, they form a self-activated laser crystal.

Following are laser crystals owned by Laser-crylink

If there is no laser crystal you need in the website list, please contact us for customization.

The active ions used in laser crystals are mainly transition metal ions and trivalent rare earth ions. The optical electrons of transition metal ions are 3d electrons located in the outer layer. In crystals, these optical electrons are susceptible to the direct effect of the surrounding crystal field. Therefore, their spectral characteristics vary greatly among crystals with different structure types. The 4f electron of trivalent rare earth ions is shielded by 5S and 5p outer electrons, which weakens the effect of crystal field. However, the perturbation of crystal field makes it possible for the forbidden 4f electron transition to produce narrow band absorption and fluorescence lines. So the spectra of trivalent rare earth ions in different crystals do not change as much as those of transition metal ions.

The matrix crystals used in laser crystals are mainly oxides and fluorides. As a matrix crystal, besides its stable physical and chemical properties, it is easy to grow large-sized crystals with good optical uniformity and low cost. However, the adaptability between matrix cations and active ions, such as radius, electronegativity and valence state of matrix cations and active ions, should be considered as close as possible. In addition, the effect of matrix crystal field on the spectra of activated ions should also be considered. For some matrix crystals with special functions, laser with certain characteristics can be produced directly by doping activated ions. For example, in some non-linear crystals, laser generated by activated ions can be directly converted into harmonic output through matrix crystals.

Ti Sapphire

Titanium-doped sapphire (Ti3+:sapphire) as an optically pumped, solid-state laser crystal is widely used in wavelength tunable laser which tunable range is 650-1100nm, and peaking at 800nm, it is one of the widest wavelength tunable laser crystal. 

Laser Wavelength660-1200 nm
Central emission800 nm
Turnable Absorption Band400-600 nm
Absorption peak488 nm
Emission Cross Section @ 790 nm41 × 10-20 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime3.2 ms
Emission Linewidth650-1100 nm
Refractive Index @633 nm1.77@ 532 nm; 1.76@800 nm; 1.75@1100 nm
Absorption Coefficient0.5~6.0 cm-1
Ti Sapphire Emission Spectrum
Ti Sapphire Absorption Spectrum


Er YAG laser Crystal—50% Erbium doped in YAG which can stimulate 2940nm laser used in medical and dentistry.The emission wavelength of Er:YAG with doping concentration of 50% is 2940nm, which is at the position of water absorption peak and can be strongly absorbed by water molecules. 

Laser Transition4I11/2 → 4I13/2 (highly doped); 4I13/2  4I15/2 (low doped)
Laser Wavelength2940 nm (highly doped); 1645 nm (low doped)
Photon Energy6.75×10-20J@2940nm
Pump Absorption Band Width600~800 nm (highly doped); 1530 nm (low doped)
Damage Threshold>500MW/cm2
Emission Cross Section3×10-20 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime0.23 ms (highly doped); 2~5 ms (low doped)
Refractive Index1.7838@2940 nm
Er YAG Emission Spectrum
Er YAG Absorption Spectrum

Cr Tm Ho YAG

Cr, Tm, Ho: YAG is high efficient laser crystal pumped by Xenon lamp or diode with wavelength of 2.1μm.2.1 μm laser wave can be absorbed by water very well, transmits atmosphere easily and is safe to eye. Therefore, it is widely used in medical treatment, laser radar, military and so on. 

Laser Transition5I7 → 5I8
Laser Wavelength 2.094 µm
Photon Energy9.55 x 10-20 J
Emission Cross Section 7 x 10-21 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime8.5 ms
Index of Refraction1.80 @2.08 µm
Absorption Linewidth4 nm
Diode Pump Band 781 nm
Major Pump Band400~800 nm
CrTm Ho YAG Emission Spectrum
CrTm Ho YAG Absorption Spectrum


Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 has been recently demonstrated to be very interesting for the development of diode–pumped short-pulsed modelocked lasers. Compared with Ti: Sapphire crystal,Yb:CALGO can be directly pumped by very efficient and high power semiconductor laser.

Emission band width* (FWHM) (nm)80
Emission Wavelength(nm)1018-1052
Minimum theoretical
duration (fs)
Central emi
ssion peak (nm)
(usual pumping) (nm)
cross section(10-20 cm2)
lifetime (μs)
Yb CALGO Absorption Spectrum
Yb CALGO Emission Spectrum

Yb CaF2

Because of the absence of undesired loss transitions such as up-conversion, excited state-absorption and concentration quenching, their low quantum defect, a comparably long fluorescence lifetime, high thermal conductivity and wide emission linewidth, ytterbium-doped CaF2 is preferably utilized for high-power diode-pumped systems and laser amplifiers with high optical-to-optical conversion efficiencies, diode-pumped femtosecond (fs) lasers and amplifiers are one of the important potential application. 

Laser Transition2F5/22F7/2
Laser Wavelength1033/1050
Optical Density0.1-0.8
Absorption Coefficient1.0 cm-1 ~ 7 cm-1
Pump Wavelength980 nm
Emission State Absorption Cross Section2.2×10-20 cm2
Ground State Absorption Cross Section0.8×10-20 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime2.4 ms
Emission Band Width70 nm
Transmission10% to 90%
Damage Threshold> 500 MW/cm2
Yb CaF2 Emission Spectrum
Yb CaF2 Absorption Spectrum


Yb: YAG is a laser crystal which is doped with trivalent ytterbium ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystal and can emits 1030 nm near-infrared laser. Yb: YAG crystal has characters of high quantum efficiency, no excited state absorption and up-conversion, high concentration tolerance, long fluorescence lifetime, wide absorption band and broad emission range and robust optical, mechanical and thermal properties etc., which makes it have great potential application in high efficiency, high power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

Laser Transition2F5/22F7/2
Laser Wavelength1030 nm
Photon Energy1.93×10-19J(@1030 nm)
Pump Absorption Band Width8 nm
Loss Coefficient0.003 cm-1
Diode Pump Band940 nm or 970 nm
Emission Cross Section2.0×10-20 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime1.2 ms
Emission Linewidth9 nm
Refractive Index @1.030 μm1.82
Thermal Optical Coefficient9× 10-6/℃
Yb YAG Emission Spectrum
Yb YAG Absorption Spectrum


Yb: YAG is a laser crystal which is doped with trivalent ytterbium ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystal and can emits 1030 nm near-infrared laser. Yb: YAG crystal has characters of high quantum efficiency, no excited state absorption and up-conversion, high concentration tolerance, long fluorescence lifetime, wide absorption band and broad emission range and robust optical, mechanical and thermal properties etc., which makes it have great potential application in high efficiency, high power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

Laser Wavelength1064nm, 1342nm
Polarized Laser Emissionπpolarization; parallel to optic axis (c-axis)
Pump Wavelength808nm
Intrinsic Loss0.02cm-1 @1064nm
Emission Cross Section25×10-19cm2@1064nm
Fluorescence Lifetime90 μs (about 50 μs for 2 atm% Nd doped) @ 808 nm
Gain Bandwidth0.96nm @1064nm
Absorption Coefficient31.4 cm-1 @ 808 nm
Absorption Length0.32 mm @ 808 nm
Nd YVO4 Absorption Spectrumpe
Nd YVO4 σ angle Emission Spectrum
Nd YVO4 π angle Emission Spectrum
Nd YVO4 Absorption Spectrumpa


Nd: YAG one of the mature developed laser crystals which is obtained by doping Nd ion into YAG crystal. The absorption bandwidth of Nd:YAG laser crystal are 730-760 nm and 790-820 nm, and usually pumped by flashtube or laser diode. The typical laser emission peak is 1064 nm, 

Laser Transition4F3/2 →> 4I11/2
Photon Energy1.86×10-19 J
Laser Transition Wavelength, λl (nm)1064
Pump Transition Wavelength, λp (nm)808
Pump Transition Bandwidth, Δλp (nm)<4
Laser Transition Bandwidth, Δλl (nm)~0.6
Nd YAG Emission Spectrum
Nd YAG Absorption Spectrum

Cr ZnSe

Laser Wavelengths2150 – 2600 nm
Emission Linewidth<1 nm
Emission Cross-section (@1064nm)9×10-19 cm²
Intrinsic Loss @1064nm<0.003 cm-1
Refractive Index (n) @ 1650nm2.455
Thermal Optical Coeff. (dn/dT) @nm 61×10-6/ºC

Cr: ZnSe laser crystal has the advantages of normally no excited state absorption and upper level conversion, an extremely broad absorption band and large emission cross-section, superb fluorescence quantum efficiency at room temperature and extra broad emission width as well as good chemical and mechanical properties, which make it become an excellent source of efficient and powerful tunable mid infrared laser. Because of mid infrared wavelength band is the window of atmosphere, the Cr: ZnSe laser crystal has important application prospect in the field of photo-communication, pollution gas detection, industrial combustion product test and so on.

Cr ZnSe Absorption Spectrum
Cr ZnSe Emission Spectrum


Refractive index1.92 at 1000nm
Fluorescent Lifetime1400 μs
Emission cross-section, cm25.2 x 10-21
Lasing wavelength, µm2.791

Flashlamp or laser diode is often used to pump the laser crystal, 970 nm laser diode is regarded as the first choice to realize 2790 nm laser pumping of Er, Cr: YSGG, which can excite the Er3+ to his lasing upper level directly with high efficiency and low energy cost. Nowadays, various of method have been adopted to switch Q (such as acousto-optic, electro-optic, FTIR) to realize pulse laser output. Owing to the specificity of lasing wavelength, this kind of lasers are widely used in medical applications, scientific investigations, material processing, military and so on.

Er Cr YSGG Laser Crystal Dadasheet Laser-Crylink
Er Cr YSGG Laser Crystal Dadasheet Laser-Crylink


The radiation wavelength of Ho3+ ions is near 2100nm, which is located in the human eye safe band and has a high transmittance in the atmosphere, and has important application prospect in the fields of remote sensing detection, laser ranging and laser radar, etc.. Meanwhile, 2100nm locates in the absorption peak of water molecule, which is highly absorbed by human tissues. 

Laser Transition5I75I8
Laser Wavelength2.05μm
Effective Stimulated Absorption Cross Section1.09×10-20cm2
Effectively Stimulated Emission Cross Section1.14×10-20cm2
Pump Wavelength1908 nm
Laser Wavelength2090 nm
Fluorescence Lifetime7 ms
quantum Efficiency1
Refractive Index @1.030 μm1.82
Ho YAG Absorption Spectrum
Ho YAG Emission Spectrum


Laser Transition4F3/24I9/2 930 nm 4F3/24I11/2 1079 nm
4F3/24I13/2 1340 nm 4F3/24I13/2 1432 nm
Laser Wavelength930nm 1079nm 1340nm
Fluorescence Lifetime170ms

Nd: YAP crystal not only has high thermal conductivity, but also has a larger excited emission cross section at 4F3/24 I13/2 transition. They are one of the most effective laser crystals known at present for the high-power operation at the 1300nm, the crystal is mainly pumped by LD. 1300nm lasers are widely used in the field of medicine, optical fiber communication and military. 

Nd YAP unpolarized absorption Spectrum
Nd YAP polarized absorption Spectrum
Nd YAP Emission Spectrum


Thulium doped yttrium fluoride lithium crystals have low nonlinear refractive index and thermo optic constant , which are very suitable for the application in the fields of scientific research, production, education and other optoelectronic fields. The crystal is a negative uniaxial crystal with a negative refractive index temperature coefficient, which can offset some thermal distortion and thus has high beam quality output. The pump wavelength is 792 nm, and the linear polarized laser with wavelength of 1900nm outputs at in the direction of a axis. 

Laser Transition3F43H6
Laser Wavelengthπ:1880 nm; σ:1908 nm
Absorption Cross-section at Peak0.55×10-20 cm2
Absorption Bandwidth at Peak Wavelength16 nm
Absorption Peak Wavelength792 nm
Lifetime of 3F4 Thulium Energy Level16 ms
Quantum Efficiency2
Non-linear Index n20.6 x 10-13
Optical Quality< 0.3 x 10-5
Refractive Index @1064 nmno=1.448, ne=1.470
TmYLF σ angle Absorption Spectrum
TmYLF π angle Emission Spectrum
TmYLF σ angle Emission Spectrum
TmYLF π andle Absorption Spectrum


Laser Wavelength1.87~2.16μm
Temperature Dependence of Refractive Index7.3 10-6/K
Absorption Cross Section7.5×10-21cm2
Diode Pump Band785nm, 680nm
Emission Cross Section@2013nm2.9×10-20 cm2
Fluorescence Lifetime 11ms

Tm: YAG operating on the 3H4 –3H6 transition in the 0.82 μm wavelength range. It can be pumped with efficient diode lasers in the 0.78 – 0.8 μm wavelength range. The transition has a small quantum defect for low thermal dissipation. The upper state lifetimes can be long, on the order of a millisecond for good energy storage. It also has sufficient gain bandwidth to support sub-ps-long pulses depending on the host material and temperature of operation. 

Tm YAG Emission Spectrum
Tm YAG Absorption Spectrum


Laser wavelength (nm)1067
Emission cross section (pm2)a32.3
Gain bandwidth (nm)2.73
Fluorescence lifetime (μs)110 at 3% doping
Thermal conductivity (Wm-1K-1)~3

Nd:KGW crystal—A crystal can be generated from excited Raman scattering and become a multi-wavelength light source in visible band after frequency doubling.

The Raman characteristics of Nd:KGW crystal depend on its high excited beam cross section, low pumping threshold, high output energy, high conversion efficiency, and two high Raman gain coefficients (768 and 901 cm-1).Since the fundamental frequency light of Raman crystal is 911 nm, 1067 nm and 1351 nm, the red, yellow and blue light of 0.455 um, 0.533 um and 65 um can be produced after frequency multiplication, which can be used in material processing, optical communication, tele-sensing, medicine, environmental monitoring, precision measurement and other fields.

Nd KGW Fluorescence
Nd KGW Emission Spectrum
Nd KGW Absorption Spectrum


With the emergence of laser diode as the preferred pump source for inertial confinement fusion and the application and development of Yb3+ laser materials in communication and military, the research on Yb3+ laser materials will reach a climax. Yb3+: KGd(WO4)2 (Yb:KGW) is one of the most promising laser active materials. Yb:KGW crystal is expected to replace Nd:YAG crystal and Yb:YAG crystal in high power diode pumped laser system. Yb:KGW also has great potential for high power, short pulse time femtosecond lasers and their wide application.

Absorption peak wavelength, lpump, [nm]981.2
Absorption linewidth, Dlpump, [nm]3.7
Peak absorption cross-section, spump, [cm2]1.2×10-19
Peak absorption coefficient, [cm-1]26
Emission wavelength, lse, [nm]1023
Emission linewidth, Dlse, [nm]20
Peak emission cross-section, sse, [cm2]2.8×10-20
Quantum effect, lpump/lse, [nm]0.959
Fluorescence lifetime, tem, [ms]0.6

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